Modiv Inc. (“Modiv”, the “Company”, “we”, “us”, “our”) is offering shares of its Class C common stock through a private placement memorandum (the “memorandum”) in reliance upon the non-public offering exemption from registration provided in section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Regulation D promulgated thereunder (the “Reg D offering” or the “offering”)
Before you invest in shares of Class C common stock of Modiv Inc., you should carefully review the memorandum. You may get the memorandum through links available on the www.Modiv.com website. Alternatively, Modiv will arrange to send you the memorandum if you request it by calling toll free 888-686-6348 or email email@example.com . You should also review the other documents Modiv has filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which you can get for free by visiting EDGAR on the SEC web site at www.sec.gov, for more complete information on the offering.
The offering on the Modiv website is a non-traded real estate investment trust, or REIT. A REIT is a corporation that owns income producing real estate. REITs pool the capital of numerous investors to purchase a portfolio of properties. Non-traded REITs do not trade on a national securities exchange and thus you should understand that any investment in our REIT is generally illiquid. The repurchase of your shares by Modiv may be possible each month through Modiv share repurchase program, but the share repurchase program is subject to limitations and fees discussed in the offering documents, including the memorandum. As the REIT is not publicly traded on any securities exchange, many factors affect the valuation of a non-traded REIT, including the portfolio of real estate assets owned, strength of the balance sheet, overhead expenses and cost of capital. The payment of any dividends or distributions, and that profits will be obtained from your investment, are not guaranteed. Elements of the investments involve varying degrees of risk, including high risk.
Before purchasing shares in Modiv, you should consider the following high risk factors:
- We have only a limited prior operating history, and the prior performance of real estate programs sponsored by us or our affiliates may not be indicative of our future results.
- We are subject to risks associated with deteriorating economic conditions resulting from the novel coronavirus (“COVID”) pandemic and related disruptions in the financial markets.
- The magnitude and duration of the COVID pandemic and its impact on our tenants, operations and liquidity is uncertain as of the date of the memorandum and may continue to have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
- We are considered a “blind pool” because, to date, we have acquired only 45 properties (and sold five of these properties during 2020), one parcel of land which currently serves as an easement to one of our office properties, and one tenant-in-common real estate investment in which we have an approximate 72.7% interest. We have not identified a significant number of additional properties to be acquired with the net proceeds from the offering. As a result, you will not be able to evaluate the economic merits of our future investments prior to their purchase. We may be unable to invest the net proceeds from the offering on acceptable terms to investors, or at all.
- Our offering is a “best efforts” offering. If we are unable to raise substantial funds in the offering, we may not be able to invest in a diverse portfolio of real estate and real estate-related investments, and the value of your investment may fluctuate more widely with the performance of specific investments.
- The offering price of shares of our Class C common stock may not accurately represent the value of our assets at any given time and the actual value of your investment may be substantially less.
- The amount of distributions we may pay, if any, is uncertain. Due to the risks involved in the ownership of real estate and real estate-related investments, there is no guarantee of any return on your investment in us and you may lose money.
- We may fail to continue to qualify as a REIT, which could adversely affect our operations and our ability to make distributions.
- Our charter does not require us to pursue a transaction to provide liquidity to our stockholders by a specified date, nor does our charter require us to list our shares for trading on a national securities exchange by a specified date. Our charter does not require us to ever provide a liquidity event to our stockholders. No public market currently exists for our shares, and we have no plans to list our shares on a national securities exchange. Consequently, you must be prepared to hold your shares for an indefinite length of time and, if you are able to sell your shares, you may have to sell them at a substantial discount.
- We have substantial indebtedness, and may incur additional secured or unsecured debt, which may affect our ability to pay distributions, expose us to interest rate fluctuation risk, impose limitations on how we operate and expose us to the risk of default under our debt obligations.
- There are significant restrictions and limitations on your ability to have any of your shares of our Class C common stock repurchased under our share repurchase program and, if you are able to have your shares repurchased by us, the stated purchase price under the repurchase program, which is based on our most recently published net asset value (“NAV”) per share, could be less than the then-current fair market value of the shares.
- We may be unable to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-lease space as leases expire on favorable terms or at all.
- We could be subject to risks associated with bankruptcies or insolvencies of tenants or from tenant defaults generally.
A description of some pertinent risk factors is below. A complete review of all risk factors is contained in the memorandum, and should be carefully reviewed before making an investment in Modiv.
Investing in Modiv involves certain risks. You should carefully consider the following risk factors. If any of the following risks were to occur, Modiv’s business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the value of our common stock may decline, and you could lose some or all of your investment.
Risks Related to the Limited Operating History of our Business
As a business with a limited operating history, investing in our common stock involves risks that are not present in other companies, including other real estate investment trusts, that have a more established investment portfolio and a longer operating history. These risk factors include the following.
We have only a limited prior operating history or established financing sources, and the prior performance of real estate investment programs sponsored by our former sponsor or its affiliates may not be an indication of our future results.
We were incorporated in the State of Maryland on May 15, 2015. As of the date of the memorandum, we have only acquired (i) 45 properties (20 operating properties were acquired through the merger with Rich Uncles on December 31, 2019) including five non-core properties (four retail and one vacant industrial property) that were sold during 2020 and four additional non-core retail properties that are assets held for sale as of December 31, 2020; (ii) one parcel of land, which currently serves as an easement to one of our office properties, and (iii) one tenant-in-common real estate investment (an approximate 72.7% interest in a 91,740 square foot industrial property located in Santa Clara, California). As of September 30, 2020, based on historical cost, we held $356,512,884 in real estate investments, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization, and $23,033,118 in real estate investments held for sale. The prior performance of our real estate investment programs may not be indicative of our future results. We plan to invest in a diversified portfolio of real estate and real estate-related investments. We also plan to seek to acquire other crowd funding companies or platforms and other non-listed real estate and real estate-related companies or portfolios.
You should consider our prospects in light of the risks, uncertainties and difficulties frequently encountered by companies that are, like us, in their early stage of operations. To be successful in this market, we must, among other things:
- identify and acquire investments that further our investment objectives;
- promote awareness of our brand within the investment products market;
- attract, integrate, motivate and retain qualified personnel to manage our day-to-day operations;
- respond to competition for our targeted real estate properties and other investments as well as for potential investors; and
- continue to build and expand our operational structure to support our business.
We cannot guarantee that we will succeed in achieving these goals, and our failure to do so could cause you to lose money.
The offering is a “best efforts” offering. If we are unable to raise substantial funds, we will be limited in the number and type of investments we may make, and the value of your investment will fluctuate with the performance of the specific properties we acquire.
The offering is being made on a “best efforts” basis, meaning that North Capital, a registered broker-dealer and our dealer manager for the offering, is only required to use best efforts to sell our Class C shares and has no firm commitment or obligation to purchase any of the Class C shares. As a result, the amount of proceeds we raise in the offering may be substantially less than the amount we would need to achieve a broadly diversified property portfolio. If we are unable to raise substantial funds, we will make fewer investments resulting in less diversification in terms of the number of investments owned, the types of investments that we make, and the geographic regions in which our investments are located. In such event, the likelihood of our profitability being affected by the performance of any one of our investments will increase. Additionally, we are not limited in the number or size of investments or the percentage of net proceeds we may dedicate to a single investment. Your investment in our Class C shares will be subject to greater risk to the extent that we lack a diversified portfolio of investments. Further, we will have certain relatively fixed third party expenses such as legal, tax and audit, regardless of whether we are able to raise substantial funds in the offering. Our inability to raise substantial funds could increase our fixed third-party expenses as a percentage of gross income, potentially reducing our net income and cash flow and potentially limiting our ability to make distributions.
Because our stockholders will not have the opportunity to evaluate the investments we may make before we make them, we are considered to be a blind pool. We may make investments with which our stockholders do not agree.
Other than our current properties and real estate investment, we are not able to provide stockholders with any information to assist them in evaluating the merits of any specific assets that we may acquire. We will seek to invest substantially all of the net proceeds from the offering, after the payment of fees and expenses, in a diversified portfolio of real estate and real estate-related investments. Our board of directors and management have broad discretion when identifying, evaluating and making such investments. You will have no opportunity to evaluate the transaction terms or other financial or operational data concerning specific investments before we invest in them. Furthermore, our board of directors will have broad discretion in implementing policies regarding tenant creditworthiness and you will likewise have no opportunity to evaluate potential tenants. As a result, you must rely on our board of directors and our management to identify and evaluate our investment opportunities, and they may not be able to achieve our business objectives, may make unwise decisions or may make investments with which you do not agree.
Failure to continue to qualify as a REIT would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution.
Our continued qualification as a REIT will depend upon our ability to meet requirements regarding our organization and ownership, distributions of our income, the nature and diversification of our income and assets and other tests imposed by the Internal Revenue Code. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year after electing REIT status, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at corporate rates. In addition, we would generally be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we lost our REIT status. Losing our REIT status would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to stockholders because of the additional tax liability. In addition, distributions would no longer qualify for the dividends-paid deduction and we would no longer be required to make distributions. If this occurs, we might be required to borrow funds or liquidate some investments in order to pay the applicable tax.
We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber-attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (“IT”) networks and related systems.
The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Our proprietary online investment platform, www.modiv.com, our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.
A security breach or other significant disruption involving our IT networks and related systems could:
- disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations;
- result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants and/or missed reporting deadlines to the SEC;
- result in our inability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT;
- result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or which could expose us to damage claims by third-parties for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;
- require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result;
- subject us to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties or termination of leases or other agreements;
- result in the unauthorized release of our stockholders’ private, personal information such as addresses, social security numbers and bank account information; or
- damage our reputation among our stockholders.
Any or all of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Risks Related to an Investment in Common Stock
We may be unable to pay or maintain cash distributions or increase distributions over time.
There are many factors that can affect the availability and timing of cash distributions to stockholders. Distributions will be based principally on cash available from our operations. The amount of cash available for distribution will be affected by many factors, such as our ability to buy properties as offering proceeds become available and our operating expense levels, as well as many other variables. Actual cash available for distribution may vary substantially from estimates. We cannot assure you that we will be able to pay or maintain distributions or that distributions will increase over time, nor can we give any assurance that rents from the properties will increase, or that future acquisitions of real properties will increase our cash available for distribution to stockholders. Because we have paid, and may continue to pay, distributions from sources other than our cash flow from operations, distributions at any point in time may not reflect the current performance of our properties or our current operating cash flows. In addition, if we pay distributions from sources other than our cash flow from operations, we may have less cash available for investments and your overall return may be reduced.
We face significant competition for real estate investment opportunities, which may limit our ability to acquire suitable investments and achieve our investment objectives or pay distributions.
We face competition from various entities for real estate investment opportunities, including other REITs, pension funds, banks and insurance companies, private equity and other investment funds, and companies, partnerships and developers. Many of these entities have substantially greater financial resources than we do and may be able to accept more risk than we can prudently manage, including risks with respect to the creditworthiness of a tenant or the geographic location of their investments. Competition from these entities may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities offered to us or increase the bargaining power of property owners seeking to sell. Additionally, disruptions and dislocations in the credit markets could impact the cost and availability of debt to finance real estate investments, which is a key component of our acquisition strategy. A downturn in the credit markets and a potential lack of available debt could limit our ability to pursue suitable investment opportunities and create a competitive advantage for other entities that have greater financial resources than we do. In addition, the number of entities and the amount of funds competing for suitable investments may increase. If we acquire investments at higher prices and/or by using less-than-ideal capital structures, our returns will be lower and the value of our respective assets may not appreciate or may decrease significantly below the amount we paid for such assets. If such events occur, our stockholders may experience a lower return on their investment.
If we are unable to complete acquisitions of suitable investments, we may not be able to achieve our investment objectives or pay distributions.
Our ability to achieve our investment objectives and to pay distributions depends upon our performance in the acquisition of investments, including the determination of any financing arrangements. We expect to use a substantial amount of the net proceeds from the offering and our Regulation S offering to primarily invest, directly or indirectly through investments in affiliated and non-affiliated entities, in a diversified portfolio of real estate and real estate-related investments. We will also seek to acquire other crowd funding companies or platforms and other non-listed real estate and real estate-related companies or portfolios.
Our investors must rely entirely on our management abilities and the oversight of our board of directors. We can give no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining suitable investments on financially attractive terms or that we will achieve our objectives. If we are unable to find suitable investments promptly, we will hold the proceeds from the offering in an interest-bearing account or invest the proceeds in short-term assets. In the event we are unable to timely locate suitable investments, we may be unable or limited in our ability to pay distributions and we may not be able to meet our investment objectives.
If we raise substantial offering proceeds in a short period of time, we may not be able to invest all of the net offering proceeds promptly, which may cause our distributions and the long-term returns to our stockholders to be lower than they otherwise would.
We could suffer from delays in locating suitable investments. The more shares we sell in our offering, the more difficult it may be to invest the net offering proceeds promptly and on attractive terms. Therefore, the large size of the offering increases the risk of delays in investing our net offering proceeds. Delays we encounter in the selection, acquisition and development of income-producing properties or the acquisition of other real estate investments would likely limit our ability to pay distributions to you and reduce your overall returns.
Disruptions in the financial markets and uncertain economic conditions could adversely affect market rental rates, commercial real estate values and our ability to secure debt financing, service future debt obligations, or pay distributions to our stockholders.
Currently, both the investing and leasing environments are highly competitive. While there has been an increase in the amount of capital flowing into the U.S. real estate markets, which resulted in an increase in real estate values in certain markets, the uncertainty regarding the economic environment has made businesses reluctant to make long-term commitments or changes in their business plans. For example, the COVID pandemic has resulted in significant disruptions in financial markets, business shutdowns and uncertainty about how the economy will perform over the next year.
Volatility in global markets and changing political environments can cause fluctuations in the performance of the U.S. commercial real estate markets. Economic slowdowns of large economies outside the United States are likely to negatively impact growth of the U.S. economy. Political uncertainties both home and abroad may discourage business investment in real estate and other capital spending. Possible future declines in rental rates and expectations of future rental concessions, including free rent to renew tenants early, to retain tenants who are up for renewal or to attract new tenants, or requests from tenants for rent abatements during periods when they are severely impacted by the COVID pandemic, may result in decreases in cash flows from investment properties. Increases in the cost of financing due to higher interest rates may cause difficulty in refinancing debt obligations prior to maturity at terms as favorable as the terms of existing indebtedness. Market conditions can change quickly, potentially negatively impacting the value of real estate investments. Management continuously reviews our investment and debt financing strategies to optimize our portfolio and the cost of our debt exposure.
We plan to rely on debt financing to finance our real estate properties and we may have difficulty refinancing some of our debt obligations prior to or at maturity, or we may not be able to refinance these obligations at terms as favorable as the terms of our current indebtedness and we also may be unable to obtain additional debt financing on attractive terms or at all. If we are not able to refinance our current indebtedness on attractive terms at the various maturity dates, we may be forced to dispose of some of our assets.
The debt market remains sensitive to the macro environment, such as Federal Reserve policy, market sentiment or regulatory factors affecting the banking and commercial mortgage backed securities (“CMBS”) industries and the COVID pandemic. We may experience more stringent lending criteria, which may affect our ability to finance certain property acquisitions or refinance any debt at maturity. Additionally, for properties for which we are able to obtain financing, the interest rates and other terms on such loans may be unacceptable. We expect to manage the current mortgage lending environment by considering alternative lending sources, including securitized debt, fixed rate loans, short-term variable rate loans, assumed mortgage loans in connection with property acquisitions, interest rate lock or swap agreements, or any combination of the foregoing.
Disruptions in the financial markets and uncertain economic conditions could adversely affect the values of our investments. Furthermore, declining economic conditions could negatively impact commercial real estate fundamentals and result in lower occupancy, lower rental rates and declining values in our real estate portfolio, which could have the following negative effects on us:
- the values of our investments in commercial properties could decrease below the amounts paid for such investments; and/or
- revenues from our properties could decrease due to fewer tenants and/or lower rental rates, making it more difficult for us to pay distributions or meet our debt service obligations on debt financing.
All of these factors could reduce stockholders’ return and decrease the value of an investment in us.
If we fail to diversify our investment portfolio, downturns relating to certain geographic regions, industries or business sectors may have a more significant adverse impact on our assets and our ability to pay distributions than if we had a diversified investment portfolio.
While we intend to diversify our portfolio of investments in the manner described in the memorandum, we are not required to observe specific diversification criteria. Therefore, our investments may at times be concentrated in a limited number of geographic locations, or secured by assets concentrated in a limited number of geographic locations. To the extent that our portfolio is concentrated in limited geographic regions, industries or business sectors, downturns relating generally to such region, industry or business sector may result in defaults on a number of our investments within a short time period, which may reduce our net income and the value of our common stock and accordingly limit our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders. As a result of the merger with Rich Uncles, 12 of our 36 operating properties, as well as our 72.7% tenant-in-common interest, are located in California, which makes the performance of our properties highly dependent on the health of the California economy.
Any adverse economic or real estate developments in our target markets could adversely affect our operating results and our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
We may not be successful in conducting the offering, which would adversely impact our ability to implement our investment strategy.
The success of the offering and our ability to implement our business strategy depend upon our ability to sell our shares to investors. All investors have a choice of numerous competing real estate investment trust offerings, many with similar investment objectives, which may make selling our shares to such investors more difficult. If we are not successful in growing, operating and managing this process, our ability to raise proceeds through the offering will be limited and we may not have adequate capital to implement our investment strategy.
The loss of or the inability to retain or obtain key real estate professionals could delay or hinder implementation of our investment strategies, which could limit our ability to make distributions and decrease the value of an investment in our shares.
Our success depends to a significant degree upon the contributions of Messrs. Aaron Halfacre, Ray Pacini and Ray Wirta, our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors, respectively, each of whom would be difficult to replace. Neither we nor our affiliates have employment agreements with these gentlemen. If any of these persons were to cease their association with us, we may be unable to find suitable replacements and our operating results could suffer as a result. We believe that our future success depends, in large part, upon our ability to attract and retain highly skilled managerial, operational and marketing professionals. Competition for such professionals is intense, and we may be unsuccessful in attracting and retaining such skilled professionals. If we lose or are unable to obtain the services of highly skilled professionals, our ability to implement our investment strategies could be delayed or hindered.
We may change our targeted investments without stockholder consent.
We intend to invest in a diversified portfolio of real estate and real estate-related investments; however, we may make adjustments to our target portfolio based on real estate market conditions and investment opportunities, and we may change our targeted investments and investment guidelines at any time without the consent of our stockholders, which could result in our making investments that are different from, and possibly riskier than, the investments described in the memorandum. A change in our targeted investments or investment guidelines may increase our exposure to interest rate risk, default risk and real estate market fluctuations, all of which could adversely affect the value of our common stock and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. We will not forgo a good investment because it does not precisely fit our expected portfolio composition. We believe that we are most likely to meet our investment objectives through the careful selection and underwriting of assets. When making an acquisition, we will emphasize the performance and risk characteristics of that investment, how that investment will fit with our portfolio-level performance objectives, the other assets in our portfolio and how the returns and risks of that investment compare to the returns and risks of available investment alternatives. Thus, our portfolio composition may vary from what we initially expect. However, we will attempt to construct a portfolio that produces stable and attractive returns by spreading risk across different real estate investments.
The offering price per share of our common stock and our estimated NAV per share may not reflect the value that stockholders will receive for their investment.
As with any valuation methodology, the methodologies we use are based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that may not be accurate or complete. Different parties using different assumptions and estimates could derive a different estimated NAV per share of our common stock, and these differences could be significant. The estimated NAV per share is not audited and does not represent the fair value of our assets less the fair value of our liabilities according to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), nor does it represent a liquidation value of our assets and liabilities or the price at which our shares of common stock would trade on a national securities exchange. The estimated NAV per share does not reflect a real estate portfolio premium/discount versus the sum of the individual property values. The estimated NAV per share also does not take into account estimated disposition costs and fees for real estate properties that are not held for sale, debt prepayment penalties that could apply upon the prepayment of certain of our debt obligations, the impact of restrictions on the assumption of debt or swap breakage fees that may be incurred upon the termination of certain of our swaps prior to expiration.
Accordingly, with respect to our estimated NAV per share and our quarterly updated offering price, we can give no assurance that:
- a stockholder would ultimately realize distributions per share equal to our estimated NAV per share upon a sale of our company;
- our shares of Class C common stock would trade at our estimated NAV per share on a national securities exchange;
- a third party would offer our estimated NAV per share in an arm’s-length transaction to purchase all or substantially all of our shares of common stock;
- another independent third-party appraiser or third-party valuation firm would agree with our estimated NAV per share; or
- the methodology used to determine our estimated NAV per share would be acceptable for compliance with ERISA reporting requirements.
The NAV of our shares will fluctuate over time in response to developments related to the capital raised during our offering stage, future investments, the performance of individual assets in our portfolio, the management of those assets, and the real estate and financial markets.
Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest
Our officers and our real estate, debt finance, management and accounting professionals face competing demands on their time, and this may cause our operations and our stockholders’ investment in us to suffer.
We rely on our officers and our real estate, debt finance, management and accounting professionals, including Messrs. Halfacre, Pacini and Wirta, to provide services to us for the day-to-day operation of our business. Our indirect subsidiary, Modiv Advisors, LLC, is the advisor to BRIX REIT and Modiv Divisibles. Messrs. Halfacre and Wirta are also directors of BRIX REIT and Modiv Divisibles, Our Chief Investment Officer, Mr. Broms, is also the Chief Executive Officer of BRIX REIT, Mr. Pacini is also the Chief Financial Officer of BRIX REIT and Modiv Divisibles, Ms. Sciutto is also the Chief Accounting Officer of BRIX REIT and Modiv Divisibles and Mr. Raney is also the Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel of Modiv Divisibles. These individuals face conflicts of interest in allocating their time among us, BRIX REIT and Modiv Divisibles, as well as other business activities in which they may be involved. During times of intense activity in other programs and ventures, these individuals may devote less time and fewer resources to our business than are necessary or appropriate to manage our business. If these events occur, the returns on our investments, and the value of your investment in us, may decline.
Our directors’ duties to BRIX REIT and our subsidiary’s role as advisor to Modiv Divisibles could influence their judgment, resulting in actions that may not be in our stockholders’ best interest or that result in a disproportionate benefit to these other programs at our expense.
Our affiliated directors, Messrs. Halfacre and Wirta, are also directors of BRIX REIT and our subsidiary, Modiv Advisors, LLC, serves as the advisor to Modiv Divisibles. The duties of our directors serving on the board of directors of BRIX REIT and our subsidiary’s role as advisor to Modiv Divisibles may influence their judgment as members of our board of directors when considering issues for us that also may affect the other programs, such as the following:
- We could enter into transactions with BRIX REIT and/or Modiv Divisibles, such as property acquisitions, sales of properties or sales of interests in special purpose entities that own property. Decisions of our board of directors or our conflicts committee regarding the terms of those transactions may be influenced by our board of directors’ responsibilities to such other programs;
- We could seek to acquire the same or similar assets that Modiv Divisibles is seeking to acquire and be in competition with Modiv Divisibles for investment opportunities;
- We could enter into options or rights of first offer or rights of first refusal with Modiv Divisibles to acquire some of its properties;
- A decision of our board of directors or our conflicts committee regarding the timing of a debt or equity offering could be influenced by concerns that the offering would compete with offerings of other programs advised by our affiliates; and
- A decision of our board of directors or our conflicts committee regarding whether and when we seek to list our common stock on a national securities exchange could be influenced by concerns that such listing could adversely affect the sales efforts of other programs advised by our affiliates, depending on the price at which our shares trade.
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
Our charter limits the number of shares a person may own and permits our board of directors to authorize the issuance of stock with terms that may subordinate the rights of our common stockholders or discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that could result in a premium price to our stockholders.
Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. To help us comply with the REIT ownership requirements of the Internal Revenue Code, among other purposes, our charter prohibits a person from directly or constructively owning more than 9.8% of our outstanding shares of common stock, unless exempted by our board of directors. In addition, our board of directors may classify or reclassify any unissued common stock or preferred stock and establish the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of repurchase of any such stock. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with priority as to distributions and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our Class C common stock. These provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price to holders of our Class C common stock.
Your investment return may be reduced if we are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act; if we or our subsidiaries become an unregistered investment company, we could not continue our business.
Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries currently intend to register as investment companies under the Investment Company Act. If we or our subsidiaries were obligated to register as investment companies, we would have to comply with a variety of substantive requirements under the Investment Company Act that impose, among other things:
- limitations on capital structure;
- restrictions on specified investments;
- prohibitions on transactions with affiliates; and
- compliance with reporting, record keeping, voting, proxy disclosure and other rules and regulations that would significantly increase our operating expenses.
If we or our subsidiaries become an unregistered investment company, we could not continue our business.
Rapid changes in the values of our assets may make it more difficult for us to maintain our qualification as a REIT or our exception from the definition of an investment company under the Investment Company Act.
If the market value or income potential of our qualifying real estate assets changes as compared to the market value or income potential of our non-qualifying assets, or if the market value or income potential of our assets that are considered “real estate-related assets” under the Investment Company Act or REIT qualification tests changes as compared to the market value or income potential of our assets that are not considered “real estate-related assets” under the Investment Company Act or REIT qualification tests, whether as a result of increased interest rates, prepayment rates or other factors, we may need to modify our investment portfolio in order to maintain our REIT qualification or exception from the definition of an investment company. If the decline in asset values or income occurs quickly, this may be especially difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish. This difficulty may be exacerbated by the illiquid nature of many of the assets that we may own. We may have to make investment decisions that we otherwise would not make absent REIT and Investment Company Act considerations.
Our stockholders will have limited control over changes in our policies and operations, which increases the uncertainty and risks our stockholders face.
Our board of directors determines our major policies, including our policies regarding financing, growth, debt capitalization, REIT qualification and distributions. Our board of directors may amend or revise these and other policies without a vote of the stockholders. Under the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”) and our charter, our stockholders have a right to vote only on limited matters. Our board of directors’ broad discretion in setting policies and our stockholders’ inability to exert control over those policies increases the uncertainty and risks our stockholders face.
The offering is an unregistered offering of shares, and failure to meet securities registration exemptions would reduce the value of our stockholders’ investments and our ability to make distributions.
In a registered public offering of securities, the SEC or state regulatory authority may review the disclosure provided by the issuer and comment upon its compliance with the disclosure requirements of applicable securities laws. Because of the nature of the offering, there are no specific required disclosures (although the anti-fraud provisions of securities laws are still applicable). Furthermore, we are structuring the offering to comply with exemptions from the registration and qualification requirements under the Securities Act or any state securities laws, so there will be no regulatory authority reviewing or commenting upon the memorandum. If we fail to qualify for those exemptions, we could be required to make rescission offers, to register the offering, and/or to register the shares of Class C common stock being offered pursuant to the offering. In addition, our officers and directors could face civil and criminal actions. Any of these circumstances would result in a significant increase in the Company’s expenses, which would reduce the value of our stockholders’ investments and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
As a result of applicable securities laws, our stockholders may not be able to sell their shares of Class C common stock acquired in the offering to third parties.
Shares of Class C common stock acquired in the offering will not be registered under the Securities Act or any state securities laws and may not be transferred unless an exemption from registration under applicable federal and state securities laws is available. There is no guarantee that an exemption from registration under applicable federal and state securities laws will be available at the time a stockholder would like to sell its shares to a third party, or ever. As a result, stockholders may be required to hold their shares acquired in the offering for the entire term of the company.
Our stockholders may not be able to immediately sell their shares of Class C common stock under our share repurchase program.
We do not expect that a secondary market for resale of our shares of Class C common stock will develop, and our ability to repurchase shares of our Class C common stock depends upon the levels of our cash reserves (including distribution reinvestment proceeds), availability under any line of credit that we might have, the pace of new sales of shares of Class C common stock, and our ability to sell properties. There can be no assurance that we will have sufficient cash reserves for Class C common stock share repurchases at all times. In addition, we may not repurchase shares if the repurchase would violate restrictions on the distributions under Maryland law, which prohibit distributions that would cause a corporation to fail to meet statutory tests of solvency.
If we must sell properties in order to honor repurchase requests, the repurchase of shares tendered for repurchase could be delayed until we have sold sufficient properties to honor such requests. We expect that the property sale process, if required to honor repurchase requests, could take several months, and we cannot be sure how long it might take to raise sufficient capital from property sales and other sources to honor all such requests. Under the terms of the share repurchase program, we would honor such repurchase requests on a pro rata basis to the extent that we have cash available for such repurchase requests.
Further, share repurchases under our share repurchase program for any 12-month period cannot exceed 2% of our aggregate NAV per month, 5% of our aggregate NAV per quarter, or 20% of our aggregate NAV per year. However, we will only repurchase shares if, among other conditions, we have sufficient reserves with which to repurchase such shares and at the same time maintain our then-current plan of operations. In addition, shares of our Class C common stock must be held for six months after they have been issued before we will accept requests for repurchase, except for shares acquired pursuant to our distribution reinvestment plan or automatic investment program if the stockholder submitting the repurchase request has held their initial investment for at least six months. Upon such presentation, we may, subject to the conditions and limitations described in the memorandum, repurchase the shares presented to us for cash to the extent we have sufficient funds available to us to fund such repurchase.
The repurchase price for shares of Class C common stock held by the stockholder for less than two years is 98% of the most recent NAV per share. The repurchase price for shares of Class C common stock held by the stockholder for at least two years is the most recent NAV per share.
Stockholders who wish to avail themselves of the share repurchase program for shares of our Class C common stock must notify us as provided on their on-line dashboard at www.modiv.com. All requests for repurchase must be received us by at least two business days before the end of a month in order for the redemption to be considered in the following month. Share repurchase requests may be withdrawn, provided they are received by us at least two business days prior to the end of a month. Shares will generally be repurchased by the third business day of the following month. Pursuant to our current share repurchase program, share repurchases may be funded by (a) distribution reinvestment proceeds, (b) the prior or future sale of shares, (c) operating cash flow not intended for distributions, (d) indebtedness, including a line of credit and traditional mortgage financing, and (e) capital transactions, such as asset sales or refinancings.
Our board of directors may amend, suspend or terminate our Class C common stock share repurchase program upon 10 days’ notice to Class C stockholders if: (a) the board of directors believes such action is in our and such stockholders’ best interests, including because share repurchases place an undue burden on our liquidity, adversely affect our operations, adversely affect stockholders whose shares are not repurchased, or if the board of directors determines that the funds otherwise available to fund our share repurchases are needed for other purposes; (b) due to changes in law or regulation; or (c) the board of directors becomes aware of undisclosed material information that it believes should be publicly disclosed before shares are repurchased.
We may, at some future date, seek to list our shares of Class C common stock on a national securities exchange to create a secondary market for our stock, but we have no current plan to do so, and for the foreseeable future stockholders should assume that the only available avenue to sell their shares of Class C common stock will be our share repurchase program.
Our investors’ interest in us will be diluted if we issue additional shares, which could reduce the overall value of their investment.
Our stockholders do not have preemptive rights to any shares we issue in the future. Our charter currently authorizes us to issue 450,000,000 shares of capital stock, of which 400,000,000 shares are designated as common stock with 300,000,000 shares being designated as Class C common stock and 100,000,000 shares being designated as Class S common stock. In August 2017, our board of directors increased the number of authorized shares of common stock without stockholder approval to facilitate an offering by us of up to 100,000,000 shares of Class S common stock exclusively to non-U.S. persons as defined under Rule 903 promulgated under the Securities Act pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act under and in accordance with Regulation S thereunder. In the future, our board of directors may further increase the number of authorized shares of common stock without stockholder approval and after investors purchase shares in the offering. To the extent we issue additional equity interests after our investors purchase shares, whether in our current or future primary offerings, including the Regulation S offering described above, pursuant to our distribution reinvestment plan or otherwise, our investors’ percentage ownership interest in us would be diluted. In addition, depending upon the terms and pricing of any additional issuance of shares, the use of the proceeds and the value of our real estate investments, our investors could also experience dilution in the book value and NAV of their shares and in the earnings and distributions per share.
If we are unable to obtain funding for future capital needs, cash distributions to our stockholders and the value of our investments could decline.
When tenants do not renew their leases or otherwise vacate their space, we will often need to expend substantial funds for improvements to the vacated space in order to attract replacement tenants. Even when tenants do renew their leases, we may agree to make improvements to their space as part of our negotiations. If we need additional capital in the future to improve or maintain our properties or for any other reason, we may have to obtain funding from sources other than our cash flow from operations or proceeds from our distribution reinvestment plan, such as borrowings or future equity offerings. These sources of funding may not be available on attractive terms, or at all. If we cannot procure additional funding for capital improvements, our investments may generate lower cash flows or decline in value, or both, which would limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and could reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment in us.
We are subject to risks relating to litigation and regulatory liability.
We face legal risks in our businesses, including risks related to the securities laws and regulations across various state and federal jurisdictions. Non-traded REITs have been the subject of increased scrutiny by regulators and media outlets resulting from inquiries and investigations initiated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and the SEC.
Violations of state and federal securities registration laws may result in contingent liabilities to purchasers for sales of unregistered securities and may also subject the seller to fines and penalties by securities regulatory agencies. It is possible that we and our affiliates could be subject to sanctions or to similar liabilities in the future, should a violation of securities registration requirements occur. A finding of such a violation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
General Risks Related to Investments in Real Estate
Pandemics or other health crises, such as the recent outbreak of COVID, may adversely affect our business and/or operations, our tenants’ financial condition and the profitability of our retail properties.
Our business and/or operations and the businesses of our tenants could be materially and adversely affected by the risks, or the public perception of the risks, related to a pandemic or other health crisis, such as the recent outbreak of COVID. The profitability of our retail properties depends, in part, on the willingness of customers to visit our tenants’ businesses. The risk, or public perception of the risk, of a pandemic or media coverage of infectious diseases could cause employees or customers to avoid our properties, which could adversely affect foot traffic to our tenants’ businesses and our tenants’ ability to adequately staff their businesses. Most of the states in which we operate have issued orders to close certain retail establishments. Such events have adversely impacted tenants’ sales and/or caused the temporary closure or slowdown of our tenants’ businesses, which has severely disrupted their operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, the potential effects of quarantined employees of office tenants may adversely impact their businesses and affect their ability to pay rent on a timely basis.
Economic, market and regulatory changes that impact the real estate market generally may decrease the value of our investments and weaken our operating results.
Our operating results and the performance of the properties we acquire are subject to the risks typically associated with real estate, any of which could decrease the value of our investments and could weaken our operating results, including:
- downturns in national, regional and local economic conditions, particularly a recession in response to the COVID pandemic;
- competition from other commercial developments;
- adverse local conditions, such as oversupply or reduction in demand for commercial buildings and changes in real estate zoning laws that may reduce the desirability of real estate in an area;
- vacancies, changes in market rental rates and the need to periodically repair, renovate and re-let space;
- changes in interest rates and the availability of permanent mortgage financing, which may render the sale of a property or loan difficult or unattractive;
- changes in tax (including real and personal property tax), real estate, environmental and zoning laws;
- material failures, inadequacy, interruptions or security failures of the technology on which our operations rely;
- natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods;
- acts of war or terrorism, including the consequences of terrorist attacks;
- a pandemic or other public health crisis (such as the recent COVID outbreak);
- the potential for uninsured or underinsured property losses; and
- periods of high interest rates and tight money supply.
Any of the above factors, or a combination thereof, could result in a decrease in our cash flow from operations and a decrease in the value of our investments, which would have an adverse effect on our operations, on our ability to pay distributions to stockholders and on the value of stockholders’ investment.
We may obtain only limited warranties when we purchase a property.
The seller of a property will often sell such property in its “as is” condition on a “where is” basis and “with all faults,” without any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. In addition, purchase agreements may contain only limited warranties, representations and indemnifications that will only survive for a limited period after the closing. Also, most sellers of large commercial properties are special purpose entities without significant assets other than the property itself. As a result, we may be unable to recover damages from certain sellers for material defects in the properties we acquire. Therefore, the purchase of properties with limited warranties or from undercapitalized sellers increases the risk that we may lose some or all of our invested capital in the property as well as the loss of rental income from that property.
We may finance properties with lock-out provisions, which may prohibit us from selling a property, or may require us to maintain specified debt levels for a period of years on some properties.
Lock-out provisions are provisions that generally prohibit repayment of a loan balance for a certain number of years following the origination date of a loan. Such provisions are typically provided by the terms of the agreement underlying a loan. Lock-out provisions could materially restrict us from selling or otherwise disposing of or refinancing properties. These provisions would affect our ability to turn our investments into cash and thus affect cash available for share repurchases or distributions to stockholders.
Lock-out provisions may prohibit us from reducing the outstanding indebtedness with respect to any properties, refinancing such indebtedness on a non-recourse basis at maturity, or increasing the amount of indebtedness with respect to such properties.
Lock-out provisions could impair our ability to take actions during the lock-out period that would otherwise be in your best interests and, therefore, may have an adverse impact on the value of the shares, relative to the value that would result if the lock-out provisions did not exist. In particular, lock-out provisions could preclude us from participating in major transactions that could result in a disposition of our assets or a change in control even though that disposition or change in control might be in your best interests.
Properties that become vacant could be difficult to re-lease or sell, which could diminish the return on these properties and adversely affect our cash flow and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
Properties may incur vacancies either by the expiration and non-renewal of tenant leases or the default of tenants under their leases. Vacancies will result in reduced revenues resulting in less cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
We intend to purchase properties with (or enter into, as necessary) long-term leases with tenants, which may not result in fair market rental rates over time.
These leases would provide for rent to increase over time; however, if we do not accurately judge the potential for increases in market rental rates, we may set the terms of these long-term leases at levels such that, even after contractual rent increases, the rent under our long-term leases is less than then-current market rates. Further, we may have no ability to terminate those leases or to adjust the rent to then-prevailing market rates. As a result, our cash available for distribution could be lower than if we did not purchase properties with, or enter into, long-term leases.
We depend on tenants for our revenue generated by our real estate investments and, accordingly, our revenue generated by our real estate investments and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders are dependent upon the success and economic viability of our tenants and our ability to retain and attract tenants. Non-renewals, terminations or lease defaults could reduce our net income and limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
The success of our real estate investments materially depends upon the financial stability of the tenants leasing the properties we own. The inability of a single major tenant or a significant number of smaller tenants to meet their rental obligations would significantly lower our net income. A non-renewal after the expiration of a lease term, termination or default by a tenant on its lease payments to us would cause us to lose the revenue associated with such lease and require us to find an alternative source of revenue to meet mortgage payments and prevent a foreclosure if the property is subject to a mortgage. In the event of a tenant default or bankruptcy, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord of a property and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment and re-leasing the property. Tenants may have the right to terminate their leases upon the occurrence of certain customary events of default and, in other circumstances, may not renew their leases or, because of market conditions, may only be able to renew their leases on terms that are less favorable to us than the terms of their initial leases. Further, some of our assets may be outfitted to suit the particular needs of the tenants. We may have difficulty replacing the tenants of these properties if the outfitted space limits the types of businesses that could lease that space without major renovation. If a tenant does not renew, terminates or defaults on a lease, we may be unable to lease the property for the rent previously received or sell the property without incurring a loss. These events could cause us to reduce distributions to stockholders.
The bankruptcy or insolvency of our tenants or delays by our tenants in making rental payments (including bankruptcies and insolvencies caused by the recent COVID pandemic) could seriously harm our operating results and financial condition.
Any bankruptcy filings by or relating to any of our tenants could bar us from collecting pre-bankruptcy debts from that tenant (including tenants whose business and operations are severely impacted by the recent COVID pandemic), unless we receive an order permitting us to do so from the bankruptcy court. A tenant bankruptcy could delay our efforts to collect past due balances under the relevant leases, and could ultimately preclude full collection of these sums. If a lease is rejected by a tenant in bankruptcy, we would have only a general unsecured claim for damages. Any unsecured claim we hold against a bankrupt entity may be paid only to the extent that funds are available and only in the same percentage as is paid to all other holders of unsecured claims. We may recover substantially less than the full value of any unsecured claims, which would harm our financial condition.
Actions of our potential future tenants-in-common could reduce the returns on tenants-in-common investments and decrease our stockholders’ overall return.
We may enter into tenants-in-common or other joint ownership structures with third parties to acquire properties and other assets. Such investments may involve risks not otherwise present with other methods of investment, including, for example, the following risks:
- our co-owner in an investment could become insolvent or bankrupt;
- our co-owner may at any time have economic or business interests or goals that are or that become inconsistent with our business interests or goals;
- our co-owner may be in a position to take action contrary to our instructions or requests or contrary to our policies or objectives; or
- disputes between us and our co-owner may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and directors from focusing their time and effort on our operations.
While we intend that any co-ownership investment that we enter into will be subject to a co-ownership contractual arrangement that will address some or all of the above issues, any of the above might still subject a property to liabilities in excess of those contemplated and thus reduce our returns on that investment and the value of your investment in us.
Costs imposed pursuant to laws and governmental regulations may reduce our net income and our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Real property and the operations conducted on real property are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to protection of the environment and human health. We could be subject to liability in the form of fines, penalties or damages for noncompliance with these laws and regulations. These laws and regulations generally govern wastewater discharges, air emissions, the operation and removal of underground and above-ground storage tanks, the use, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of solid and hazardous materials, the remediation of contamination associated with the release or disposal of solid and hazardous materials, the presence of toxic building materials and other health and safety-related concerns.
Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on the tenants, owners or operators of real property for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault, whether the contamination occurred prior to purchase, or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. Activities of our tenants, the condition of properties at the time we buy them, operations in the vicinity of our properties, such as the presence of underground storage tanks, or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our properties.
The presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly manage or remediate these substances, may hinder our ability to sell, rent or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings. Any material expenditures, fines, penalties or damages we must pay will reduce our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders and may reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment in us.
The costs of defending against claims of environmental liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property or of paying personal injury or other damage claims could reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, a current or previous real property owner or operator may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on, under or in such property. These costs could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental laws also may impose liens on property or restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures or prevent us from entering into leases with prospective tenants that may be impacted by such laws. Environmental laws provide for sanctions for noncompliance and may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, by private parties. Certain environmental laws and common law principles could be used to impose liability for the release of and exposure to hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials and lead-based paint. Third parties may seek recovery from real property owners or operators for personal injury or property damage associated with exposure to released hazardous substances and governments may seek recovery for natural resource damage. The costs of defending against claims of environmental liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury, property damage or natural resource damage claims could reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
We intend that most if not all of our real estate acquisitions be subject to Phase I environmental assessments prior to the time they are acquired; however, such assessments may not provide complete environmental histories due, for example, to limited available information about prior operations at the properties or other gaps in information at the time we acquire the property. A Phase I environmental assessment is an initial environmental investigation to identify potential environmental liabilities associated with the current and past uses of a given property. If any of our properties were found to contain hazardous or toxic substances after our acquisition, the value of our investment could decrease below the amount paid for such investment.
Costs associated with complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act may decrease our cash available for distribution.
Our properties may be subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended (the “Disabilities Act”). Under the Disabilities Act, all places of public accommodation are required to comply with federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Disabilities Act has separate compliance requirements for “public accommodations” and “commercial facilities” that generally require that buildings and services be made accessible and available to people with disabilities. The Disabilities Act’s requirements could require removal of access barriers and could result in the imposition of injunctive relief, monetary penalties or, in some cases, an award of damages. Any funds used for Disabilities Act compliance will reduce our net income and the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Uninsured losses relating to real property could reduce our cash flow from operations and the return on our stockholders’ investment in us.
We expect that most of the properties we acquire will be subject to leases requiring the tenants thereunder to be financially responsible for property liability and casualty insurance. However, there are types of losses, generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to pandemics such as the COVID pandemic, wars, acts of terrorism, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, pollution or environmental matters that are uninsurable and/or for which the tenants are not contractually obligated to provide insurance. In such instances, we may be required to provide other financial support, either through financial assurances or self-insurance, to cover potential losses.
We may not have adequate coverage for such losses. If any of our properties incurs a casualty loss that is not fully insured, the value of our assets will be reduced by any such uninsured loss, which will reduce the value of stockholders’ investment in us. In addition, other than any working capital reserve and other reserves we may establish, we have limited sources of funding to repair or reconstruct any uninsured property.
Changes in accounting pronouncements may materially and adversely affect our tenants’ credit quality and our ability to secure long-term leases and renewal options.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board issued a new accounting standard, effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, for public business entities and December 15, 2019 for non-public business entities, that requires companies to capitalize all leases on their balance sheets by recognizing a lessee’s rights and obligations. Many companies that accounted for certain leases on an “off balance sheet” basis are now required to account for such leases “on balance sheet.” This change removed many of the differences in the way companies account for owned property and leased property, and could have a material effect on various aspects of our tenants’ businesses, including their credit quality and the factors they consider in deciding whether to own or lease properties. The new standard could cause companies that lease properties to prefer shorter lease terms, in an effort to reduce the leasing liability required to be recorded on their balance sheets. The new standard could also make lease renewal options less attractive, as, under certain circumstances, the rule would require a tenant to assume that a renewal right will be exercised and accrue a liability relating to the longer lease term.
Other general risks of investing in real estate include those set forth below.
- If we sell properties by providing financing to purchasers, defaults by the purchasers would adversely affect our cash flows.
- If we purchase an option to acquire a property but do not exercise the option, we likely would forfeit the amount we paid for such option, which would reduce the amount of cash we have available to make other investments.
- We may not have funding for future tenant improvements, which may adversely affect the value of our assets, our results of operations and returns to stockholders.
- We depend on the availability of public utilities and services, especially for water and electric power. Any reduction, interruption or cancellation of these services may adversely affect us.
We may be required to reimburse tenants for overpayments of estimated operating expenses.
Risks Associated with Debt Financing
We obtain lines of credit, mortgage indebtedness and other borrowings, which increases our risk of loss due to potential foreclosure.
We obtain lines of credit and long-term financing that may be secured by our properties and other assets. In most instances, we acquire real properties by financing a portion of the price of the properties and mortgaging or pledging some or all of the properties purchased as security for that debt. We may also incur mortgage debt on properties that we already own in order to obtain funds to acquire additional properties, to fund property improvements and other capital expenditures, to pay distributions and for other purposes. In addition, we may borrow as necessary or advisable to ensure that we maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including borrowings to satisfy the REIT requirement that we distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to our stockholders (computed without regard to the dividends-paid deduction and excluding net capital gain). However, we can give our stockholders no assurance that we will be able to obtain such borrowings on satisfactory terms or at all.
If we do mortgage a property and there is a shortfall between the cash flow generated by that property and the cash flow needed to service mortgage debt on that property, then the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders may be reduced. In addition, incurring mortgage debt increases the risk of loss of a property since defaults on indebtedness secured by a property may result in lenders initiating foreclosure actions. In that case, we could lose the property securing the loan that is in default, reducing the value of our stockholders’ investment in us. For tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our properties would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure even though we would not necessarily receive any cash proceeds. We may give full or partial guarantees to lenders of mortgage or other debt on behalf of the entities that own our properties. When we give a guaranty on behalf of an entity that owns one of our properties, we will be responsible to the lender for satisfaction of all or a part of the debt or other amounts related to the debt if it is not paid by such entity. If any mortgages contain cross-collateralization or cross-default provisions, a default on a mortgage secured by a single property could affect mortgages secured by other properties.
We may utilize repurchase agreements as a component of our financing strategy. Repurchase agreements economically resemble short-term, variable-rate financing and usually require the maintenance of specific loan-to-collateral value ratios. If the market value of the assets subject to a repurchase agreement declines, we may be required to provide additional collateral or make cash payments to maintain the required loan-to-collateral value ratios. If we are unable to provide such collateral or cash repayments, we may lose our economic interest in the underlying assets.
We may also obtain recourse debt to finance our acquisitions and meet our REIT distribution requirements. If we have insufficient income to service our recourse debt obligations, our lenders could institute proceedings against us to foreclose upon our assets. If a lender successfully forecloses upon any of our assets, our ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders will be limited and the value of our shares could decrease.
Increases in mortgage rates or changes in underwriting standards may make it difficult for us to finance or refinance properties, which could reduce the number of properties we can acquire, our cash flow from operations and the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
If mortgage debt is unavailable at reasonable rates, we may not be able to finance the purchase of properties. If we place mortgage debt on a property, we run the risk of being unable to refinance part or all of the debt when it becomes due or of being unable to refinance on favorable terms. If interest rates are higher when we refinance properties subject to mortgage debt, our income could be reduced. We may be unable to refinance or may only be able to partly refinance properties if underwriting standards, including loan to value ratios and yield requirements, among other requirements, are stricter than when we originally financed the properties. If any of these events occurs, our cash flow could be reduced and/or we might have to pay down existing mortgages. This, in turn, would reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders, could cause us to require additional capital and may hinder our ability to raise capital by issuing more stock or by borrowing more money.
We may use leverage in connection with any real estate investments we make, which increases the risk of loss associated with this type of investment.
We may finance the acquisition of certain real estate-related investments with warehouse lines of credit and repurchase agreements. Although the use of leverage may enhance returns and increase the number of investments that we can make, it may also substantially increase the risk of loss. There can be no assurance that leveraged financing will be available to us on favorable terms or that, among other factors, the terms of such financing will parallel the maturities of the leases in underlying assets acquired. If alternative financing is not available, we may have to liquidate assets at unfavorable prices to pay off such financing. The return on our investments and cash available for distribution to our stockholders may be reduced to the extent that changes in market conditions cause the cost of our financing to increase relative to the income that we can derive from the assets we acquire.
Our debt service payments will reduce our cash available for distribution. We may not be able to meet our debt service obligations and, to the extent that we cannot, we risk the loss of some or all of our assets to foreclosure or sale to satisfy our debt obligations. If we utilize repurchase financing and if the market value of the assets subject to a repurchase agreement declines, we may be required to provide additional collateral or make cash payments to maintain the required loan-to-collateral value ratio. If we are unable to provide such collateral or cash repayments, we may lose our economic interest in the underlying assets. Further, credit facility providers and warehouse facility providers may require us to maintain a certain amount of cash reserves or to set aside unleveraged assets sufficient to maintain a specified liquidity position that would allow us to satisfy our collateral obligations. As a result, we may not be able to leverage our assets as fully as we would choose, which could reduce our return on assets. In the event that we are unable to meet these collateral obligations, our financial condition could deteriorate rapidly.
Lenders may require us to enter into restrictive covenants relating to our operations, which could limit our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
When providing financing, a lender may impose restrictions on us that affect our distribution and operating policies and our ability to incur additional debt. Loan agreements into which we enter may contain covenants that limit our ability to further mortgage a property or that prohibit us from discontinuing insurance coverage. These or other limitations would decrease our operating flexibility and our ability to achieve our operating objectives and limit our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
Subject to certain restrictions in our charter, we have broad authority to incur debt and debt levels could hinder our ability to make distributions and decrease the value of our stockholders’ investment in us.
Our charter limits the amount we may borrow to 300% of the cost of our net assets, unless any excess borrowing is approved by a majority of our independent directors and disclosed to our stockholders in our next quarterly report, along with a justification for such increase. Our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, has approved our target aggregate leverage limit of 55% of the cost of acquiring our tangible assets (excluding the use of our acquisition line of credit and before deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves). Our borrowings on one or more individual properties may exceed 55% of their individual cost, so long as our overall leverage does not exceed 55%. We may exceed this limit only if any excess borrowing is approved by a majority of our conflicts committee and is disclosed to our stockholders in our next quarterly report, along with the justification for such excess. When calculating our use of leverage, we will not include borrowings relating to the initial acquisition of properties that are outstanding under a revolving credit facility (or similar agreement). There is no limitation on the amount we may borrow for the purchase of any single asset.
To hedge against interest rate fluctuations, we may use derivative financial instruments that may be costly and ineffective.
From time to time, we may use derivative financial instruments to hedge exposures to changes in interest rates on loans secured by our assets. Derivative instruments may include interest rate swap contracts, interest rate cap or floor contracts, futures or forward contracts, options or repurchase agreements. Our actual hedging decisions will be determined in light of the facts and circumstances existing at the time of the hedge and may differ from our currently anticipated hedging strategy. There is no assurance that our hedging strategy will achieve our objectives. We may be subject to costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs, if we terminate these arrangements.
To the extent that we use derivative financial instruments to hedge against interest rate fluctuations, we will be exposed to credit risk, basis risk and legal enforceability risks. In this context, credit risk is the failure of the counterparty to perform under the terms of the derivative contract. If the fair value of a derivative contract is positive, the counterparty owes us, which creates credit risk for us. Basis risk occurs when the index upon which the contract is based is more or less variable than the index upon which the hedged asset or liability is based, thereby making the hedge less effective. Finally, legal enforceability risks encompass general contractual risks including the risk that the counterparty will breach the terms of, or fail to perform its obligations under, the derivative contract. There is a risk that counterparties could fail, shut down, file for bankruptcy or be unable to pay out contracts. The failure of a counterparty that holds collateral that we post in connection with an interest rate swap agreement could result in the loss of that collateral.
Above we provided description of some but not all of the pertinent risk factors. For a complete discussion of all risk factors, and before making any investment in Modiv Inc., you should carefully review the offering documents, including the memorandum.
These Risk Disclosures were last updated on February 1, 2020.